Wen-Lian Hsu Director, IEEE Fellow
Distinguished Research Fellow
Institute of Information Science,
Taipei, Taiwan, R. O. C. Phone:886-2-27883799 ext.2202 Fax:886-2-27892910 E-mail:firstname.lastname@example.org
Wen-Lian Hsu received a B.S. from the Department of
Mathematics, National Taiwan University in 1973. He
received an M.S. and a Ph.D. in operations research
from Cornell University in 1978 and 1980,
respectively. From 1979 to 1980, he worked as a
research associate in the Center for Operations
Research and Econometrics (CORE) at Universite
Catholique de Louvain, Belgium. In 1980, he joined
Northwestern University as an assistant professor
and was promoted to tenured associate professor in
1986. He joined the Institute of Information Science
as a research fellow in 1989.
Dr. Hsu's earlier research while in Northwestern
University is focused on graph algorithms. His main
contribution is on perfect graphs and special
classes of intersection graphs. Most of his
publications appear in JACM and SIAM J. Computing.
Recently, he invented the PC-tree data structure to
design very efficient algorithms in planar graphs
and intersection graphs. In the meantime, he has
applied similar techniques to tackle computational
problems in Biology such as error-tolerant
algorithms in DNA sequence analysis.
Right after joining the institute in 1989, he
initiated the project ``intelligent Chinese phonetic
input system'' (in cooperation with K. J, Chen),
aiming at resolving a major bottleneck in the
computerization of Chinese language -- the input
method. A software resulted from this project,
自然輸入法(GOING), achieved a hit ratio close to 96% and
was selected as one of the ten best Chinese computer
products of Taiwan in 1993. This software has been
widely used in Taiwan and the number of downloads in
PC Home web station is close to 600,000. Later, he
moved into the research of Intelligent Agent on the
Internet, and produced the Math. Problem Solving
Agent in 1997, and a Chinese natural language Q & A
system, @skbots, in 1999. He is currently working on
DNA sequence analysis, Genome knowledge base and
intelligent knowledge management systems.
Dr. Hsu has published in various top-notch journals
in discrete mathematics, operations research and
computer science. He has been invited to deliver
lectures in many international conferences. He has
been the conference chairs of ISAAC'91 and
COCOON'98, ITS’06 and has been involved in the
editorship of the following journals: Managing
Editor of Journal of Information Science
(1995-2001), International Journal of Foundation of
Computer Science (1993-2002), Information Processing
Letters (2001-), and International Journal of
Bioinformatics Research and Applications (2005-). He
has been the president of the Artificial
Intelligence Society in Taiwan (2001-2002).
Ph.D. Cornell University, Operations Research, 1980(Advisor - George L. Nemhauser)
M.S.Cornell University, Operations Research, 1978
B.S.National Taiwan University, Mathematics, 1973
2012-present Professor, Director, Institute of Information Science, Academia Sinica.
2008-2012 Professor, Distinguished Research
Fellow, Institute of Information Science, Academia Sinica.
1989-2008 Professor, Research Fellow,
Institute of Information Science, Academia Sinica.
2001-present Professor (joint
appointment), Department of Computer Science,
National Tsing-Hua University.
1997-1998 Acting Director, Institute
of Information Science, Academia Sinica
1996-1997 Visiting Professor, CSLI
center, Stanford University.
1986-1989 Associate Professor (with
tenure), Department of IE/MS,Northwestern
1980-1986 Assistant Professor,
Department of IE/MS,Northwestern University.
1979-1980 Postdoctoral Fellow, Center
for Operations Research and Econometrics(CORE),
Universite Catholique de Louvain.
1977-1979 Research Assistant, Cornell
1975-1977 Teaching Assistant, Cornell
Our main research topic is natural language
understanding. Nearly all of the following systems
require certain understanding capability to achieve high
precision rates: semantic search on the web, Chinese
voice input and output, spelling checker and machine
translation. Our Chinese input system--GOING, which
automatically translates a chu-in sequence into
characters with a hit ratio close to 96%, is widely used
in Taiwan. It received the Distinguished Chinese
Information Product Award（中文傑出資訊產品獎）in 1993. In PC Home
software download area, GOING has been downloaded
600,000times. Within the top 10 download software, it is
the only one developed domestically.
Our model for concept understanding can utilize
heterogeneous knowledge representation systems. We have
extended our model to that on Internet intelligent
agents, especially on the database agents. These
software agents will become indispensable in the
semantic search engine and the electronic commerce on
the Internet. Another direction we are moving into is
the development of educational tutoring systems. We have
successfully implemented a system that can understand
and solve (and explain how so solve) the mathematics
word problems of primary school (grade 3).
Our major achievement is the development of a knowledge
representation kernel, InfoMap, for the semantic
analysis of natural language, which can be applied to a
wide variety of application systems. We are currently
utilizing this kernel to develop an Intelligent
Knowledge Management System over the World Wide Web.
There are several technology transfer programs currently
going on with private companies.
In DNA sequence analysis, we have been studying the
physical mapping and the clone assembly problem. When
the experimental error is within 15%, we have developed
an error-tolerant algorithm for the clone assembly
problem (as well as the physical mapping problem) that
can determine the relative positions of each clone
(respectively, each probe) given the clone overlapping
relationships. By combining our knowledge management
tools, InfoMap, and natural language agent, we are
currently constructing a Question Answering system for
genomic and proteomic knowledge. We shall further extend
this system to help biologist to execute certain natural
language scripts automatically in their dry labs.
Finally, we shall utilize InfoMap to facilitate the
accurate search of various relationships in biological
Nai-Wen Chang, Hong-Jie Dai, Jitendra Jonnagaddala, Chih-Wei
Chen, Richard Tzong-Han Tsai, Wen-Lian Hsu, "A Context-Aware
Approach for Progression Tracking of Medical Concepts in
Electronic Medical Records,"
Journal of Biomedical
Yung-Chun Chang, Zhong-Yong Chen, Chien Chin Chen, and
Wen-Lian Hsu, "Constructing Topic Person Interaction
Networks Using a Tree Kernel-based Method," to appear in
International Journal of Languages, Literature and
Kuen-Pin Wu, Jia-Ming
Chang, Jun-Bo Chen, Chi-Fon Chang, Wen-Jin Wu, Tai-Huang Huang, Ting-Yi
Sung and Wen-Lian Hsu, “RIBRA-an
Error-Tolerant Algorithm for the NMR Backbone Assignment Problem,”
Journal of Computational Biology 13, 229-244 (2006); also, in
Proceedings of the International conference on Research in Computational
Molecular Biology (RECOMB’05), acceptance rate: 18% (39/217).
W. K. Shih, W. L. Hsu and T. C. Chen, "An O(n2
) algorithm for the Hamiltonian cycle problem on circular-arc graphs,"
SIAM J. Comput 21, 1026-1046, (1992).
W. L. Hsu and K. H. Tsai, "Linear time algorithms on circular-arc graphs,"
Information processing Letters 40, 123-129,
W. K. Shih and W. L. Hsu, "An O(nlogn + mloglogn) algorithm for finding a maximum weight clique in circular-arc graphs,"
Infor. Process. Letters, 129-134, (1989).
W. K. Shih and W. L. Hsu, "An O(n1.5)
algorithm for coloring proper circular-arc graphs,"
Discrete Applied Math 25, 321-323, (1989).
C. Gabor, W. L. Hsu and K. Supowit, "Recognizing circle graphs in polynomial
time," J. Assoc. Comput. Machin., 435-473, (1989).
W. L. Hsu, "The coloring and maximum independent set problems on planar
perfect graphs," J. Assoc. Comput. Machin., 535-563, (1988).
W. L. Hsu, "Recognizing planar perfect graphs,"
J. Assoc. Comput. Machin.
34, 255-288, (1987).
W. L. Hsu, "Decomposition of perfect graphs,"
J. Combin. Theory (B)
43, 70-94, (1987).
W. L. Hsu, "Coloring planar perfect graphs by decomposition,"
Combinatorica 6 (4), 381-385, (1986).
W. L. Hsu, "Maximum weight clique algorithms for circle graphs and
circular-arc graphs," SIAM J. Computing 14, 224-231, (1985).
W. L. Hsu, "Berge's strong perfect graph conjecture on special graphs: A
Survey," Annals of Discrete Math. 21, 107-117, (1984).
W. L. Hsu, "Approximation algorithms for the assembly line crew scheduling
problem," Math. of Operations Research 9, 376-383, (1984).
W. L. Hsu and G. L. Nemhauser, "Algorithms for maximum weight cliques,
minimum weighted clique covers and cardinality colorings of claw-free
perfect graphs," Annals of Discrete Math. 21, 317-329, (1984).
W. L. Hsu, "On the general feasibility test of scheduling lot sizes for
several products on one machine,' Management Science 29,
W. L. Hsu, "The distance-domination numbers of trees,"
Research Letters 1, (3), 96-100, (1982).
W. L. Hsu and G. L. Nemhauser, "A polynomial algorithm for the minimum weighted clique cover problem on claw-free perfect graphs," (with G. L.
Nemhauser), Discrete Math. 38, 65-71, (1982).
W. L. Hsu, Y. Ikura and G. L. Nemhauser, "A polynomial algorithm for maximum
weighted vertex packing on graphs without long odd cycles," Math. Prog.
20, 225-232, (1981).
W. L. Hsu, "How to color claw-free perfect graphs,"
Annals of Discrete
Math. 11, 189-197, (1981).
W. L. Hsu and G. L. Nemhauser, "Algorithm for minimum covering by cliques
and maximum cliques in claw-free perfect graphs," Discrete Math. 37, 181-191,
W. L. Hsu and G. L. Nemhauser, "Easy and hard bottleneck location problems,"
Discrete Applied Math. 1, 209-215, (1979).
Yu-Lun Hsieh, Shih-Hung Liu, Yung-Chun Chang, and Wen-Lian
Hsu, "Distributed Keyword Vector Representation for Document
Categorization," to appear in The 2015 Conference on
Technologies and Applications of Artificial Intelligence
Chun-Han Chu, Apoorva Honnegowda Roopa, Yung-Chun Chan, and
Wen-Lian Hsu, "Constructing Sentiment SensitiveVectors for
Word Polarity Classification," to appear in The 2015
Conference on Technologies and Applications of Artificial
Intelligence (TAAI 2015).
Shih-Hung Liu, Hung-Shin Lee, Hsiao-Tsung Hung, Kuan-Yu
Chen, Berlin Chen, Hsin-Min Wang, Hsu-Chun Yen, Wen-Lian
Hsu, "Incorporating proximity information in relevance
language modeling for extractive speech summarization," 2015
APSIPA Annual Summit and Conference (APSIPA ASC 2015), Hong
Kong, December 16-19, 2015.
Yung-Chun Chang, Yu-Chen Su, Chun-Han Chu, Chien Chin Chen,
and Wen-Lian Hsu, "Protein-protein Interaction Passage
Extraction Using the Interaction Pattern Kernel Approach for
the BioCreative 2015 BioC Track," the Fifth BioCreative
Challenge Evaluation Workshop, pages 10-16, September 2015.
Shih-Hung Liu, Kuan-Yu Chen, Berlin Chen, Hsin-Min Wang,
Hsu-Chun Yen, Wen-Lian Hsu, “Positional language modeling
for extractive broadcast news speech summarization," the
16th Annual Conference of the International Speech
Communication Association (Interspeech 2015), Dresden,
Germany, September 6-10, 2015.
Yu-Lun Hsieh, Shih-Hung Liu, Yung-Chun Chang, Wen-Lian Hsu,
"Neural Network-based Vector Representation of Documents for
Reader-Emotion Categorization," The 4rd IEEE International
Workshop on Empirical Methods for Recognizing Inference in
Text, pages 569-572, August 2015.
Yung-Chun Chang, Chien Chin Chen, Wen-Lian Hsu, "Discovering
the interactions between persons from Chinese Topic
Documents," The 26th Conference on Computational Linguistics
and Speech Processing (ROCLING 2014), August 2014.
Yu-Lun Hsieh, Shih-Hung Liu, Ting-Hao Yang, Yu-Hsuan Chen, Yung-Chun Chang, Chiu-Chen Hsieh, Cheng-Wei Shih, Chun-Hung Lu, Wen-Lian Hsu, "A Frame-based Approach for Reference Metadata Extraction,"in Proceedings of the 2014 Conference on Technologies and Applications of Artificial Intelligence (TAAI 2014),Volume 8916 of the series Lecture Notes in Computer Science pp 154-163.
Nai-Wen Chang, Hong-Jie Dai, Chih-Wei Chen, Jitendra Jonnagaddala,
Chou-Yang Chien, Manish Kumar, Richard Tzong-Han Tsai, Wen-Lian
Hsu,"TMUNSW System for Risk Factor Recognition and Progression
Tracking,"Seventh i2b2 Shared Task and Workshop Challenges in
Natural Language Processing for Clinical Data, Washington
T. Mamie Lih, Ke-Shiuan Lynn, Hui-Ying Chang, Mei-Ling
Cheng, Ming-Shi Shiao, Wen-Harn Pan, Ting-Yi Sung and
Wen-Lian Hsu, "Metab-ID: a software for metabolite
identification from MS1 data," 61th ASMS Conference on Mass
Spectrometry and Allied Topics, (2013).
Hui-Yin Chang, Nai-Yuan Chiang, Chia-Feng Tsai, Ya-Wen Tsai,
Yu-Ju Chen, Ting-Yi Sung and Wen-Lian Hsu, "ProtDIA-id: An
automatic tool to extract MS/MS spectra for protein
identification in proteomic experiments using
data-independent acquisition," 61th ASMS Conference on Mass
Spectrometry and Allied Topics, (2013).
Ting-Hao Yang, Yu-Lun Hsieh, Yu-Hsuan Chen, Michael Tsang,
Cheng-Wei Shih, Wen-Lian Hsu, "Sinica-IASL Chinese Spelling
Check System at SIGHAN-7", in Proceedings of The Seventh
SIGHAN Workshop on Chinese Language Processing (SIGHAN-7),
Nagoya, Japan, October 13, 2013.
Cheng-Wei Shih, Chad, Liu, Cheng-Wei Lee, Wen-Lian Hsu, "IASL RITE
System at NTCIR-10", in Proceedings of NTCIR-10 Workshop Meeting, Tokyo,
Japan, June 18-21, 2013, pp. 425-429. (2013).
Yung-Chun Chang, Jian-Ming Chen, Hong-Jie Dai, Johnny Chi-Yang Wu,
Chun-Hung Lu, Richard Tzong-Han Tsai, and Wen-Lian Hsu, "TEMPTING: A
TEMPoral relation extracting System for the i2b2 2012 TLINK Track," 2012
i2b2 Shared-Tasks and Workshop on Challenges in Natural Language
Processing for Clinical Data, Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence,
Cheng-Wei Shih, Cheng-Wei Lee, Ting-Hao Yang, Wen-Lian Hsu, "IASL RITE
System at NTCIR-9", in Proceedings of NTCIR-9 Workshop Meeting, Tokyo,
Japan, December 6-9, 2011, pp. 379-385. (2011).
Tang, Wan-Chun; Lu, Chun-Hung; Lu, Ching-Ching; Hsu, Wen-Lian; Hue, Chih-Wei.,
"On the Use of Praat：A step toward the Improvement of Hakka
Proceedings of the International Conference
on e-Commerce, e-Administration, e-Society, e-Education, and
e-Technology (e-CASE 2011), Japan,
Lu, Ching-Ching; Lu, Chun-Hung; Meg M. Lu; Hue, Chih-Wei; Hsu, Wen-Lian.,
"Poetry Writing with e-Learning,"
in Proceedings of the International Conference on
e-Commerce, e-Administration, e-Society, e-Education, and e-Technology
(e-CASE 2011), Japan,
Lu, hing-Ching , Lu, Chun-Hung , Lu, Meg Ming-Chen, Hue, Chih-Wei, Hsu,
Wen-Lian., "Canonical Chinese Syntax Awareness Facilitated by an
e-Learning Program," Paper presented at EET, Chengdu, China,
Lu, Ching-Ching , Lu, Chun-Hung , Lu, Meg Ming-Chen, Hue, Chih-Wei, Hsu,
Wen-Lian., "Canonical Chinese syntax awareness facilited by an e-leraning
in Proceedings of
Advances in Intelligent and Soft Computing, 109,
472-280. Spinger Press,
Hong-Jie Dai1, Po-Ting
Lai, Richard Tzong-Han Tsai and Wen-Lian Hsu, "Global
Ranking via Data Fusion", in proceeding of the 23rd International
Conference on Computational Linguistics (COLING 2010). Beijing, China;
Chih-Chiang Tsou, Ting-Yi
Sung, and Wen-Lian Hsu, “MassComp-Q: A comprehensive quantitation
software tool for stable isotope labeling and label-free quantitative
proteomics”, 57th ASMS Conference on Mass Spectrometry, Philadelphia,
Yi-Ting Wang, Chia-feng
Tsai, Tzu-Chan Hong, Chih-Chiang Tsou, Pei-Yi Lin, Tse-Ming Hong, Pan-Chyr
Yang, Ting-Yi Sung, Wen-Lian Hsu, and Yu-Ju Chen, "A Simple Label-free
LC-MS/MS Strategy Towards Comprehensive Phosphoproteomics View that
Depict the Mechanisms of Cancer Cell Invasion," 57th ASMS Conference on
Mass Spectrometry, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, (2009).[slides]
Sheng-Ta Tsai, Chia-Ning
Shen, Chih-Chiang Tsou, Wan-Yu Mao, Wei-Chao Chang, Wen-Lian Hsu, and
Chung-Hsuan Chen, "Comparative proteomic analysis of liver cancer stem
cells," 57th ASMS Conference on Mass Spectrometry, Philadelphia,
Yi-Ting Wang, Chia-Feng Tsai, Pei-Yi Lin,
Tzu-Chan Hong, Chih-Chiang Tsou, Wen-Lian Hsu, Ting-Yi Sung, Tze Min
Hong, Pan-Chyr Yang, and Yu-Ju Chen, "SEMI-quantitation Strategy for
Label-free Quantitative Profiling of Phosphoproteome in Lung Cancer of
Different Invasive Potential," 56th ASMS Conference on Mass
Spectrometry, Denver, Colorado, (2008).
Chien-Peng Wu, Pei-Yi Lin, Chih-Wei Chien,
Chia-Li Han, Chih-Chiang Tsou, Ting-Yi Sung, Wen-Lian Hsu, and Yu-Ju
Chen, "Altered Membrane Proteomic Signature in Human Colorectal Cancer
Revealed by Label-free Quantitation Strategy," 56th ASMS Conference on
Mass Spectrometry, Denver, Colorado, (2008).
Chih-Chiang Tsou, Chia-Feng Tsai, Ethan Yin-Hao
Tsui, Paul Chuan-Yih Yu, Yi-Ting Wang, Pei-Yi Lin, Yu-Ju Chen, Ting-Yi
Sung and Wen-Lian Hsu, IDEAL-Q: an automated tool for high-performance
label-free quantitative analysis, 56th ASMS Conference on Mass
Spectrometry, Denver, Colorado, (2008).[slides]
Pei-Yi Lin, Chia-feng Tsai, Chih-Chiang Tsou,
Chien-Peng Wu, Yi-Ting Wang, Ting-Yi Sung, Wen-Lian Hsu, and Yu-Ju Chen,
"High-speed Proteomic Signature by Swift LC-MS/MS and Label-free
Quantitation," 56th ASMS Conference on Mass Spectrometry, Denver,
Yi-Hsun Lee, Cheng-Wei Lee, Cheng-Lung Sung, Mon-Tin
Tzou, Chih-Chien Wang, Shih-Hung Liu, Cheng-Wei Shih ,
Pei-Yin Yang and Wen-Lian Hsu, "Complex
Question Answering with ASQA at NTCIR 7 ACLIA" in
proceeding of the 7th NTCIR Workshop Meeting , Tokyo,
Japan, December 16-19, pp. 70-76, (2008).
Chorng-Shyong Ong, Min-Yuh Day, Kuo-Tay Chen, Wen-Lian
Evaluation of Question Answering Systems", in
Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on
Intelligence and Security Informatics (IEEE ISI 2008),
Taipei, Taiwan, June 17-20, 2008, pp.
Hong-Jie Dai, Hsi-Chuan Hung,
Richard Tzong-Han Tsai, & Wen-Lian Hsu. IASL Systems in the Gene
Mention Tagging Task and Protein Interaction Article Sub-task . Proceedings
of Second BioCreAtIvE Challenge Workshop (2007).
Hsi-Chuan Hung, Richard Tzong-Han
Tsai, & Wen-Lian Hsu, "Identifying Protein Interaction Abstracts with
Contextual Bag of Words", Proceedings of the AAAI-07 Student Workshop
Mon-Tin Tzou, Chun-Hung Lu, Chin-Chien Wang, Cheng-Wei
Lee, Wen-Lian Hsu, “Extending
knowledge of AIML by using RDF” in proceeding of the
15th International Conference on Computers in
Education(ICCE2007) Workshop, Hiroshima, Japan,
November, 2007, 5-9, pp 92-94, (2007)
Chin-Chien Wang, Chun-Hung Lu, Mon-Tin Tzou, Cheng-Wei
Lee, Wen-Lian Hsu, “Task-based
Learning through Dialogue Management” in proceeding
of the 15th International Conference on Computers in
Education(ICCE2007) Workshop, Hiroshima, Japan,
November, 2007, 5-9, pp 95-97, (2007)
Richard Tzong-Han Tsai,
Hong-Jie Dai, Hsi-Chuan Hung, & Wen-Lian Hsu. Exploiting
Unlabeled Internal Data in Conditional Random Fields to
Reduce Word Segmentation Errors for Chinese Texts.
Proceedings of the Interspeech-2007 Conference (2007).
Tsai, R. T.H., Dai, H.J., Sung, C.L., Hung, H.C., Day,
M.Y., & Hsu, W.L. Chinese Word Segmentation with Minimal
Linguistic Knowledge: An Im-proved Conditional Random
Fields Coupled with Character Clustering and Auto-matically
Discovered Template Matching. Paper presented at the
IEEE IRI-06. (2006).
Tzong-Han Tsai, Chia-Wei Wu, Chun-Nan Chi, Ding He, Ting-Yi Sung, Wen-Lian Hsu "Biomedical Literature Mining: Technologies and IASL’s Experiences", WSA 2005 Workshop invited paper (2005).Tsai, T.-H., Wu, S.-H. and Hsu, W.-L. , "Exploitation of linguistic features using a CRF-based biomedical named entity recognizer", ACL Workshop on Linking Biological Literature, Ontologies and Databases: Mining Biological Semantics. Detroit (2005). [slides]
Cheng-Wei Lee, Cheng-Wei Shih, Min-Yuh Day, Tzong-Han
Tsai, Tian-Jian Jiang, Chia-Wei Wu, Cheng-Lung Sung,
Yu-Ren Chen, Shih-Hung Wu, and Wen-Lian Hsu (2005), "Perspectives
on Chinese Question Answering Systems,"
in Proceedings of the Workshop on the Sciences of the
Artificial (WSA 2005), Hualien, Taiwan, (2005).
W. L. Hsu, J. M. Chang, W. C. Chou, J. B. Chen, K. P. Wu, T. Y. Sung, C. F. Chang, W. J. Wu and T. H. Huang,
“An Iterative Relaxation Technique for the NMR Backbone Assignment Problem,”invited talk, in Proceedings of IEEE Fourth Symposium on Bioinformatics and Bioengineering (BIBE2004), (2004).
Wing-Kwong Wong, Sheng-Cheng Hsu, Wen-Lian Hsu, and
Chin-Tang Cho, “Computer-assisted Learning Environment
with Automated Chinese Word Problem Categorization,”
Proceedings of ICCE2003, (2003).
K. P. Wu,
H. N. Lin, T. Y. Sung, and W. L. Hsu, “A New Similarity Measure among
Protein Sequences,” Proceedings of IEEE The Computational Systems
Bioinformatics Conference (CSB’03), Stanford, CA, (2003),
Acceptance rate, 19% (27/138).
W. L. Hsu, “On the design of a computer that speak
fluent Chinese,” Proceedings of RAMs’95, (1995).
Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on
Cognitive Aspects of the Chinese Language, (1993),
Fu Chang, Ying-Chu Chen, Hon-Son Don, W. L. Hsu, and
Ching-I Kao, "Stroke segmentation as a basis for
structural matching of Chinese characters", Second
International Conference on Document Analysis and
W. K. Shih and W. L. Hsu, "
A simple test for planar graphs," Proceedings of the International Workshop on Discrete Math. and Algorithms, University of Hong Kong, 110-122, (1993).
K. H. Tsai and W. L. Hsu, "A linear time algorithm for the
maximum two track assignment problem," proc. 27th Allerton Conference on
Communication, Control and Computing, 291-300, (1989).
W. L. Hsu, "Efficient algorithms for the maximum weight clique problem on
circular-arc graphs and circle graphs," Progress in Graph Theory, J. A.
Bondy and U. S. R. Murty ed., 335-345, (1984).
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