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Journal of Information Science and Engineering, Vol. 22 No. 3, pp. 701-712 (May 2006)

Semi-fragile Image Authentication Using Real Symmetric Matrix

Ching-Tang Hsieh, Yeh-Kuang Wu, Chyi-Jang Lee* and Hong-Yu Chen
Department of Electrical Engineering
Tamkang University
Tamsui, 251 Taiwan
E-mail: hsieh@ee.tku.edu.tw
*Department of Industry and Business Management
The Open University of Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung, 812 Taiwan

In order to improve the detection of malicious tampering of images, it is necessary to decrease the fragility of hidden watermarks, even for digital images which have been distorted incidentally. In this paper, we propose a new semi-fragile digital watermarking technique based on eigenvalues and eigenvectors of real symmetric matrix generated by the pair of four pixels. A signature bit for detecting malicious tampering of an image is generated using the dominant eigenvector. The dominant eigenvalue can reduce the sensitivity of quantization based watermarking. The experimental results show that this algorithm can resist high quality (70 or more) JPEG compression, and improve the detection performance of various malicious alterations.

Keywords: digital watermark, semi-fragile watermark, real symmetric matrix, eigenvalue

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Received March 1, 2004; revised July 19, 2004 & January 20, 2005; accepted April 7, 2005.
Communicated by Ja-Ling Wu.