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Journal of Information Science and Engineering, Vol. 25 No. 2, pp. 499-515 (March 2009)

Combining Interest Point and Invariant Moment for Geometrically Robust Image Watermarking*

Lei-Da Li, Bao-Long Guo and Lei Guo+
Institute of Intelligent Control and Image Engineering
Xidian University
Xi'an 710071, P.R. China
+National Laboratory of Pattern Recognition
Institute of Automation
Chinese Academy of Sciences
Beijing 100080, P.R. China

This paper presents a new robust image watermarking scheme for resisting both traditional and geometric attacks. A watermark synchronization scheme is first presented using image features. Harris interest points are first extracted from the scale normalized image and the locally most stable points are employed to generate some non-overlapped circular regions. Watermark synchronization is achieved using these local circular regions. Thereafter, the rotation invariant pseudo-Zernike moments (PZMs) are computed over each circular region and the watermark signal is composed of the PZM vectors extracted from all the local regions. Then the PZM vectors are modified and reconstructed, producing some error images. The watermark is embedded by adding the error images into the corresponding local circular regions in spatial domain directly. During watermark detection, local circular regions are first extracted from the distorted image and PZMs are computed over each local region. A minimum distance decoder is proposed to detect the watermark blindly. Simulation results on Stirmark 4.0 show that the watermark is robust against traditional signal processing attacks, rotation, scaling, flipping, Stirmark random bending as well as combined attacks.

Keywords: image watermark, geometric attack, watermark synchronization, feature extraction, pseudo-Zernike moment, Stirmark

Full Text () Retrieve PDF document (200903_10.pdf)

Received May 17, 2007; revised July 20, August 16 & October 9, 2007; accepted November 12, 2007.
Communicated by Tong-Yee Lee.
* This paper was partially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (60572152 and 60802077) and Ph.D. Programs Foundation of Ministry of Education of China (20060701004).