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Journal of Information Science and Engineering, Vol. 26 No. 5, pp. 1755-1770 (September 2010)

A Compressed-Domain Image Watermarking Scheme with the SPIHT Coding*

SHIH-HSUAN YANG AND WU-JIE LIAO
Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering
National Taipei University of Technology
Taipei, 106 Taiwan

In this paper, we present a compressed-domain watermarking technique for still images based on the SPIHT (set partitioning in hierarchical trees) coding. The proposed watermark is engraved on the refinement bits of SPIHT. By jointly considering watermarking and compression, the proposed quantization-based watermark suffers less degradation from the host interference and lossy compression. Watermark verification can be realized through a low-complexity hard-decision detector without host information. We further present a repetition-code scheme to enhance the robustness performance of the system. Experimental results show that the proposed method is more resilient to non-geometric attacks than the transform-domain spread-spectrum methods.

Keywords: copyright protection, compressed-domain processing, data hiding, image watermarking, SPIHT

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Received September 4, 2008; revised November 25, 2008; accepted January 22, 2009.
Communicated by H. Y. Mark Liao.
* This work was supported in part by the National Science Council of Taiwan, R.O.C., under the Grant No. NSC 89-2213-E-027-055.