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Journal of Information Science and Engineering, Vol. 26 No. 6, pp. 2159-2171 (November 2010)

An Energy-Aware, Cluster-Based Routing Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks

JYH-HUEI CHANG
Department of Computer Science
National Chiao Tung University
Hsinchu, 300 Taiwan

Cluster-based routing protocols have special advantages that help enhance both scalability and efficiency of the routing protocol. Likewise, finding the best way to arrange clustering so as to maximize the network's lifetime is now an important research topic in the field of wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we present an Energy-Aware, Cluster- Based Routing Algorithm (ECRA) for wireless sensor networks to maximize the network's lifetime. The ECRA selects some nodes as cluster-heads to construct Voronoi diagrams and rotates the cluster-head to balance the load in each cluster. A two-tier architecture (ECRA-2T) is also proposed to enhance the performance of the ECRA. The simulations show that both the ECRA-2T and ECRA algorithms outperform other routing schemes such as direct communication, static clustering, and LEACH. This strong performance stems from the fact that the ECRA and ECRA-2T rotate intra-cluster-heads to balance the load to all nodes in the sensor networks. The ECRA-2T also leverages the benefits of short transmission distances for most cluster-heads in the lower tier.

Keywords: sensor networks, energy aware, network lifetime, clustering, Voronoi diagram

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Received November 4, 2008; revised March 23 & June 1, 2009; accepted July 23, 2009.
Communicated by Tei-Wei Kuo.