Much of our economy and way of living will be affected by nanotechnologies in the decade to come and beyond. Mastering materials at the molecular level and their interaction with living matter opens up?unforeseeable horizons. This talk deals with how we will conceive, design and use nanosystems, i.e., integrated systems exploiting nanodevices. Whereas switching circuits and microelectronics have been the enablers of computer and communication systems, nanosystems have the potentials to realize innovative computational fabrics whose applications require broader hardware abstractions, extended software layers and with a much higher complexity level overall. The abstraction of computation, the nanosystem architecture, the technological feasibility envelope and the multivariate design optimization problems pose challenging and disruptive research questions that this talk will address.