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Journal of Information Science and Engineering, Vol.19 No.2, pp.381-395 (March 2003)

An Embedding Algorithm for Multiple Watermarks

Chin-Shiuh Shieh, Hsiang-Cheh Huang*, Feng-Hsing Wang and Jeng-Shyang Pan
Department of Electronic Engineering
National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences
Kaohsiung, 807 Taiwan
*Department of Electronics Engineering
National Chiao Tung University
Hsinchu, 300 Taiwan

A new algorithm for embedding several watermarks into the same original source is proposed in this paper. Instead of conventional watermark embedding algorithms that embed one watermark in one specific domain, we propose algorithms for embedding multiple watermarks into different compression domains to protect the ownership of the original images. The proposed schemes for embedding and extraction in different domains vary from the existing methods reported in the literature. Simulation results show their robustness for surviving intentional attacks and, hence, their effectiveness in protecting copyrights. They are also easy to implement.

Keywords: digital watermark, vector quantization (VQ), discrete cosine transform (DCT), joint photographic experts group (JPEG), secret key, blind detection, Stirmark

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Received February 1, 2001; revised December 18, 2001; accepted March 8, 2002.
Communicated by Shiuh-Pyng Shieh.