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Journal of Information Science and Engineering, Vol. 26 No. 3, pp. 913-932 (May 2010)

Routing Protocols in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks: A Survey and Future Perspectives*

YUN-WEI LIN1, YUH-SHYAN CHEN2 AND SING-LING LEE1
1Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering
National Chung Cheng University
Chiayi, 621 Taiwan
E-mail: jyneda@gmail.com; singling@cs.ccu.edu.tw
2Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering
National Taipei University
Taipei, 237 Taiwan
E-mail: yschen@mail.ntpu.edu.tw

Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET), a subclass of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), is a promising approach for the intelligent transportation system (ITS). The design of routing protocols in VANETs is important and necessary issue for support the smart ITS. The key difference of VANET and MANET is the special mobility pattern and rapidly changeable topology. It is not effectively applied the existing routing protocols of MANETs into VANETs. In this investigation, we mainly survey new routing results in VANET. We introduce unicast protocol, multicast protocol, geocast protocol, mobicast protocol, and broadcast protocol. It is observed that carry-and-forward is the new and key consideration for designing all routing protocols in VANETs. With the consideration of multi-hop forwarding and carry-and-forward techniques, min-delay and delay-bounded routing protocols for VANETs are discussed in VANETs. Besides, the temporary network fragmentation problem and the broadcast storm problem are further considered for designing routing protocols in VANETs. The temporary network fragmentation problem caused by rapidly changeable topology influence on the performance of data transmissions. The broadcast storm problem seriously affects the successful rate of message delivery in VANETs. The key challenge is to overcome these problems to provide routing protocols with the low communication delay, the low communication overhead, and the low time complexity. The challenges and perspectives of routing protocols for VANETs are finally discussed.

Keywords: vehicular ad hoc network, carry-and-forward, routing, min-delay routing, delay- bounded routing

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Received March 31, 2009; accepted September 30, 2009.
Communicated by Chih-Yung Chang, Chien-Chung Shen, Xuemin (Sherman) Shen, and Yu-Chee Tseng.
* The authors would like to thank the anonymous reviewers and the editors for the valuable suggestions to improve this paper. This research was supported by the National Science Council of Taiwan, R.O.C., under Grant No. NSC 97-2221-E-305-003-MY3.