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Journal of Information Science and Engineering, Vol. 32 No. 5, pp. 1261-1287 (September 2016)

Geographic Routing with Enhanced Local Information for Wireless Networks*

1Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering National Taiwan Normal University Taipei, 106 Taiwan E-mail: 2Department of Electrical Engineering National Taiwan University of Science and Technology Taipei, 106 Taiwan E-mail:

Geographic routing provides for network scalability through routing decisions made from local position information. This feature is essentially at the cost of routing path stretch particularly in networks having sparse nodes or holes. To mitigate the unappeal-ing factor, we exploit information on the maximum angle between successive edges from a node, defined as the representative angle of a node that economically characterizes lo-cal topology and is also exchanged with neighbors. Besides analyzing its valuable infor-mation, we prove that nodes with the representative angle larger than or equal to 5/3, called corner nodes, can be logically removed from networks without disconnecting a given source from destination. We then propose routing schemes that thoroughly utilize representative angle information and associated design principles to reduce hop counts. In particular, we propose greedy network boundary traversal schemes which overlay the state of the art mechanism by the rotational sweep algorithm based on curved-stick to bypass network voids. Consequently, through excluding corner nodes as relays and tak-ing into account the representative angle of a relay candidate by a weighting function in greedy mode operation and skipping unnecessary hops in recovery mode operation, our routing scheme achieves a remarkable saving of routing hop counts.

Keywords: geographic routing, greedy forwarding, network void, face routing, rotational sweep algorithm

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Received June 22, 2015; accepted August 30, 2015.
Communicated by Ren-Hung Hwang.
* This work was supported by the National Science Council of Taiwan under Grant NSC 102-2221-E-003-001 and MOST 103-2221-E-003-005. Part of this paper was presented in IEEE GlobeCom 2012.