中央研究院 資訊科學研究所

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2016 Technical Report

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論文代碼

TR-IIS-16-001

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Data Requirements of Intelligent Indoor Emergency Evacuation Systems
F. T. Lin, J. W. S. Liu, J. M. Ho, T. W. Kuo, L. J. Chen, J. Su, E. T. H. Chu, C. S. Shih, Wen-Jun Wang, Yi-Pei Liao, Meng-Chiao Lin, Jia-Lin Zhong, Dave Leong, Shih-Hong Chuang, Chen Chou, Heui-Yun Hsu, Hong-Yi Lin, Guo-Xiu Li, Pin-Rui Huang, Han-Wen Zhang

This report summarizes the findings of an exploratory study on data requirements of intelligent indoor emergency evacuation systems. Here, the term Intelligent indoor emergency Evacuation System, or IES for short, refers to a core component of advanced facility management and building automation systems for large buildings. IES can respond to CAP (Common Alert Protocol) formatted alerts and alarms generated by local emergency alert systems warning of fires, gas leaks, explosions, etc. within the facility. The IES also can respond to CAP alerts from responsible government agencies warning of imminent and observed natural disasters such as earthquakes, flood and landslides threatening wider geographical areas containing or near the facility. In response to each CAP alert, the IES works automatically or semi-automatically to prevent loss of lives, reduce chance of injuries and minimize property damages. When evacuation within or from the facility is warranted, the system can dynamically re-routes people depending on their locations, extents of damages and density and distribution of people, and provide people with real-time, location-, environment-, and situation specific instructions during emergencies.

The primary focus of this study is on data requirements of intelligent indoor emergency evacuation systems (IES) for representative large public buildings/facilities in Taiwan. Its objectives include (1) to determine data requirements of IES for representative public buildings selected as targets of case studies; (2) to identify potential technical, legal and regulatory issues if any that must be addressed for the required data to be accessible by IES during emergencies of multiple severity levels and through the system released to first responders, facility managers, affected people and general public; and (3) to identify work to be done to make data on critically needed to support indoor emergency evacuation decisions and operations available to IES. The study was done in collaboration with New Taipei City Government, Public Works Department (PWD, 新北市政府工務局), Architecture and Building Research Institute, Ministry of Interior (ABRI, 內政部建築研究所) and the National Science and Technology Center for Disaster Reduction (NCDR).

The results presented in this report include (1) IES data requirements derived from analysis of emergency scenarios within four buildings selected as targets of case studies and data requirements of large public buildings in general; (2) a prototype scalable and disaster resilient indoor positioning system that is accessible via both smart and dumb mobile devices; and (3) a responsive hybrid scheme for IES to control data accesses by first responders, emergency, building managers, and so on with Break-the-Glass emergency accounts and by general public without such accounts. In addition to describing these results, this report presents a summary of existing building code and regulations related to fire, flood and earthquakes emergencies; an overview on BIM and the current state of practices; an overview of Common Alert Protocol (CAP), the international standard format for emergency alert messages; descriptions of emergency scenarios and SOP supporting emergency evacuation in buildings selected as test sites; an overview of legal and regulatory issues governing access and use of data required by IES, and proposed work to lower the barriers to wide adoption of IES and availability of data required by these systems.

Keywords – Intelligent indoor emergency evacuation, data requirements, emergency scenarios, Building Information Model, Indoor positioning, emergency data access control, legal and regulatory issues

此探究性的研究專注於智慧室內緊急避難系統(Intelligent Indoor Emergency Evacuation Systems, IES) 的資料需求。用於大型建築物內的IES必須能夠接收反應建築物本身的警報系統所發佈的火災、瓦斯外洩、爆炸等設施內緊急警報,也能夠接收反應政府單位 (例如中央氣象局) 所發佈有關地震,淹水和土石流等的災害預警與緊急警報。接收到警報時,IES會自動化或半自動化地預防及響應、以降低人員傷亡和財產損失為目的。在緊急避難時刻,IES能依據不同類型的緊急事件、造成破壞的範圍、人群密度等即時情境資訊,動態更新規劃人群的逃生路線,並能考慮所處環境的特殊性提供因人、因地特定的逃生指令。這些逃生指令通常是透過多媒體告示牌的方式公告,及個別發到受災民眾的手機或是通用的移動裝置。 此項研究側重於台灣大型建築物的智慧室內緊急避難系統的資料需求。其工作包含 (1) 選擇兩種類型的公共建築 (新北市三個新的體育中心及中央研究院資訊所大樓) 為案例研究的測試點,確定用於此類建築內的IES之資料需求,然後從此結論與決策過程推斷出用於一般台灣大型建築內的IES之資料需求; (2) 在不同的緊急級別事件中,系統資料可能被前線救難人員、設施管理員、受災群眾以及一般大眾所存取,本研究在此中探討潛在的技術、法律及監管議題; (3) 建議確保IES能在緊急疏散操作及決策時得到所需資料的途徑。為了促使研究成果具體落實,此工作的合作夥伴為新北市政府工務局、內政部建築研究所以及國家災害防救科技中心。

此項研究的成果包含 (1)透過分析四個測試點建築物緊急災害情境而得到的一般大型建築物中的IES資料需求規範;(2)一個彈性可擴充的、可與智慧型裝置以及功能型裝置互動的室內定位系統模型;(3) 一個複合式應變資料存取控制架構、可讓第一線救災人員、建築管理員及一般大眾擁有不同的資料存取權。此報告除了描述這些成果以外、其內容還包括現今的建築物在面對火災、水災以及地震災害的法規概要;建築物資訊模型現今的實務應用;共通示警協定 (CAP: Common Alert Protocol)的概要;在測試點建築物中的災害情境、緊急逃生的標準作業流程以及IES資料需求;與有關IES資料需求的法律及監管議題概要。

關鍵字: 智慧室內緊急避難、資料需求、緊急災害情境、建築物資訊模型、室內定位、緊急資料存取控制、法律及監管議題

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TR-IIS-16-002

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Model-Based Anomaly Detection on Network Services
Shun-Wen Hsiao, Yeali S. Sun, Meng Chang Chen, Hui Zhang

The key hypothesis to anomaly detection assumes anomalous behaviors are suspicious from a normality point of view. This work provides a new perspective, network service, to model network activity for detecting anomalies. Past models often suffer from lacking of model normality verification, only including particular behavior aspect, and focusing on individual model. To confront them, we propose a framework based on the perspective of multiple network service models. For normality verification, we show how to construct underlying protocol models by static and dynamic approach to guarantee the usability. For the latter two problems, we show how to construct composite service model with protocol interaction and correlation. Classes of attacks, such as worm and botnet, illustrate that our composite model detects the symptom of at-tack that individual ones cannot. This work provides a promising perspective from network service and a new construction method for service modeling.

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TR-IIS-16-003

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Participant Selection Problem - Relative Performance of Five Optimization Solvers
C. Y. Lin, J. W. S. Liu and W. D. Yeh, E. T. H. Chu

This report presents integer linear programming formulations of four variants of the participant selection problem (PSP) that we may encounter in likely disaster scenarios. An evaluation study was carried out to quantify the relative performance of popular optimization solvers and a greedy heuristic algorithm when used to solve the PSP. The report describes the study and presents the data.

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